Text and Time 117 (The Dancers)

Text and Time 117 (The Dancers), oil on canvas, 80×120 cm, 2017.

Work of Archetypal Expressionism, my new awarded art concept/movement.

The Archetypal Expressionism Statement

ARCHETYPAL EXPRESSIONISM lies between the two major paradigms of contemporary art, the figurative and the abstract. It represents the spiritual quest for common cultural roots, beyond the tragic accidents of history. It is a fascinating approach to rediscovering the Tahiti of our collective memory, through the shapes and the exotic figures of our inner lives. It is art suspended between the real and the imaginary and it needs rigor and mystery, arithmetic and lyricism, simplicity and paradox.

Although my work concept as a visual artist, that is ARCHETYPAL EXPRESSIONISM, could be considered a new one, it describes an immemorial artistic reality. Archetypal Expressionism is indeed a new concept and yet it echoes an ancient tradition in making art, also specific to cultures of a remote past. Strong colors, deformities and a special sensitivity to imagine the world are not exclusively the prerogatives of modern expressionists. Though most of the art experts have asserted that there are only two major paradigms, the figurative and the abstract, I intend to convince the arts community that even from primordial times we have had THE THIRD PARADIGM , the ARCHETYPAL ART. The archetypes have a secret power, because they have been used during thousands of years by a large amount of populations and they are now a part of our hidden inner life. That is why they have a special emotional impact on every human being.

Every major work of art begins with an archetype and ends in music, the most ineffable manifestation of time.

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Severin’s Choice: Ion Bolocan

The Thinking

Artist Statement:
“A sculptor lives through his works, and that is why each one of his creations is – to him- a piece of his soul. Mainly, my sculptures represent the human body and no matter how hard I would try to avoid that, it is impossible, because humans are the most accomplished figures ever designed.” (Ion Bolocan)


“Ion Bolocan’s sculpture is an extremely well sustained and a very personal comment on modernity in art. Obviously, all Brancusian elements as well as Europe’s artistic Avant-garde are taken into account. Then his history with 3D, with the Renaissance-inspired figurative, help the artist to express the evolution of sculpture in modernity.” (Pavel Șușară, art critic, Romania)

The Lady from Chisinau

“Sculptor Ion Bolocan is an artist who uses as a main motive, the human figure, particularly the woman. The way he expresses himself is borderline figurative and abstract and you cannot fail to notice the harmony of the volumes, the balance between full and void […] [Bolocan’s]“Țipătul” (“The Scream”) makes me think of Edvard Munch, famous for his own “Scream”, reflecting the essence of the scream just like Brâncuși reflected in his Maiastra works the essence of the flight.” (Gheorghe Dican)

The Scream



The Portrait


Ion Bolocan

Curriculum Vitae

Ion Bolocan


Born on the 9th of October, 1961, Meseni, Orhei, Republic Of Moldova
1976- graduated the School of Arts for children in Orhei
1984- 1986 – Studied Arts at the Pedagogical University “Ion Creanga”, in Chisinau, Republic Of
Moldova. In 2005 he obtained a license in Art.
1992- probationery member of the Union of Artists
1993 – Official member of the Union of Artists in Republic of Moldova
2014 Official member of the Union of Artists in Romania
Personal Exhibitions
1997 – ,,Brancusi” gallery, Chisinau, Moldova
1999 – Asiart gallery,Backyard gallery,Wiesbaden, Germany
1999 Asiart gallery,Budingen, Germany
2001 – Asiart gallery, Dr Brunner& Partner , Titisse – Neustadt, Germany
2003 – Sv. Iono Gatves Gallery, Vilnius , Lithuania
2004 – Inter Art Gallery Reich, Koln, Germany
2009 – Stefan Kuerten & Art, Chateau de Luins, Luins, Switzerland
2009 Stefan Kuerten & Art, Ferme Sarasin – Salle de Saconnex, Geneva, Switzerland
2011- ,,Brancusi” gallery, Chisinau, Moldova
2012- Museum of History, Ramnicu Valcea, Romania
2013 Art Muzeum , Ploesti, Romania
Group Exhibitions
1990 – Native Language (limba noastra)
1991-1997 – Spring and Autumn Salons (Saloanele de primavera si de toamna )
1992 -Sculpture-92 (Sculptura-92)
1998 – Moldovian salons, The Central House of Arts, Moscow,Russia,
1998 Bienala of sculpture Arad
1998 Salons of Moldavia, Central House of Arts, Moscow ,Russia
1998 Bienala of sculpture, Arad, Romania
1998 Exhibition plainaer of sculpture, Museum of History, Chisinau, Moldova
2002- ,, La Intrsectie de milenii” Chisinau , Moldova
2002 Sculpture Exhibition Chisinau, Moldova
2003- Bienala International of Sculpture ,, Dante in Europe” edition XVI, Ravena, Italy
2006- Babel Center ,Utrecht, Holland
2006 European Council, Bruxel, Belgium
2008- ,,Contemporary Sculpture”, Chisinau, Moldova
2013 Trajan’s Column in contemporary art, Bukarest, Romania
2014 Parallax Art Fair, London, United Kingdom
2015 London Art Biennale, London, United Kingdom
2016 Art Safari, Bukarest,Romania
2017 Art Expo New York
Excellence Award, Romanian Academy, Ministry of Culture,Ploesti, 2013
Special mention for exellence, London Art Biennale 2015
Sculptures in public collections
Museum of Arts in Republic Of Moldova
Collection Bienalei of sculpture in Ravena city , Italy
Sculptures in private collections
Romania, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, France, Belgium, USA, Sweden, United Kingdom,
Mob: +373 69 27 62 69
E-mail : bolocan.ion.61 @ gmail.com
web: http:// ionbolocan.ro facebook.com

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Text and Time 116

Text and Time 116, oil on canvas, 50×70 cm, 2017. Work of Archetypal Expressionism, requested by an art collector from Bucharest, D.T., the follower of a famous family of intelectuals and boyards from Bukowina, my beautiful home-region.

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Severin’s Choice: Marcel Cornis-Pope

‘’Intercultural translation is by definition boundary-crossing, facilitating interaction and response.’’

Interview with the literary criticist and theorist Marcel Cornis-Pope, Professor of English and Media Studies,
Department of English, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, USA.

I know that you’ve been a lucky child in your birth city, Arad, Romania: the library of your father was huge. Do you remember the first books which impressed you?

– I was born in Arad but my early education was begun in Cluj, in the library of my father
which occupied two different rooms in our house. My reading interests developed
gradually, negotiating some truce between classic Romanian literature (my father’s focus)
and my first explorations in English and American literature. J.D. Salinger, Virginia
Woolf, Thomas Pynchon and Thomas Wolfe were my first interests.

At what age did you discover the beauty of the English language, which became
over the years your first tool of daily communication? Is English now your daily
inner life, too? And what is the language of your dreams?

– I started studying English in school in fourth grade. In addition to my first readings (of
Salinger’s stories, for example) I spent too much time (according to my father) listening
to that “horrible” English music (Beatles and their followers). Gradually, English became
the language of my inner thoughts and fantasies.

Your main hobby is classical music, as I know, a good nourishment for a rich
spiritual life. Do you play any instrument?

– At the beginning I tried to negotiate some truce between classical music and pop and rock
music. Both styles interested me, though I found rock music more appealing to my own
temperament. I had a good voice and I learned to accompany myself on the guitar.

You are among the Romanian intellectuals who remained vertical during the
communist dictatorship. How difficult was for you to fight with the pressures of
nomenklatura and political police?

– It was quite difficult especially in terms of what I wanted to write and publish. Many of
the texts I wrote had to go through different rewrites to be able to pass censorship or were
never published.

I’ve noticed that you are one of the thinkers who are encouraging the
collaboration between political and cultural imagination, though almost
everywhere the political life is dirty. Do you believe that in the post-communist
societies this could be one of the paths to the democratization process?

– Whether we like it or not, the political plays an important role in our thinking and
expression. Post-communist societies need to learn to negotiate new ways to address the
political implications of contemporary thinking and expression.

This issue of ‘’Levure littéraire’’, founded by your former student in Timisoara,
the well-known writer, Rodica Draghincescu, is dedicated to ‘’Translation- word
nourishment, clothing, map and craft’’. I remember that you won your first
Romanian Writers’ Union award, in 1975, for a translation from English. Can you
tell us some words about the importance of translation in our time? Can we say that the critical
interpretation of the literary texts is a kind of translation?

– Whether we are aware of it or not, translation plays an important role in all our
statements. We translate our own ideas into new expressions, retranslate ideas we have
discovered in other writers, and—as your next question suggests—all our interpretations
of texts are modes of translations, more or less accurate or suggestive.

The Polish sociologist and philosopher Zygmunt Bauman asserted that in our era
we need specialists in the field of translation between cultures. In my opinion you
are one of them, but can you explain to our readers which are the main tasks of
such experts?

-Translation between cultures is essential to the process of reciprocal understanding.
Otherwise, cultures would be estranged entities, gesturing towards each other but not able
to cross the boundaries of their respective discourses. Intercultural translation is by
definition boundary-crossing, facilitating interaction and response.

Probably among the Romanian theorists of literature, Adrian Marino was the first
with a significant international audience, followed by you, Virgil Nemoianu,
Matei Calinescu, Mihai Spariosu, Monica Spiridon, Toma Pavel and others. I had
a moving personal relationship with him. Did you also meet him, did you admire
his ideas and books?

– Adrian Marino was a great guide for my more complex literary explorations. Many of the
early ideas (transcultural, deconstructive, dialogical) that I was able to develop were
directly inspired by theorists like Marino.

Are you satisfied by the efforts to reintegrate in Romania the cutting edge
contributions of several generations of expatriated Romanian theorists?

– I am happy that this process has finally started and that Romanian literature is richer and
more complex as a result. The intertextual dialogue with the expatriated writers is still not
fully developed but we are moving in the right direction.

I began to be in touch with you 15 years ago, when I was writing the essay on
postliterature and one of my references became your book, ‘’Narrative
Innovations and Cultural Rewriting in the Cold War Era and After’’, published by
Palgrave Press, in 2001. Are you still interested by the new changes of paradigm
in the history of culture?

– Changes of paradigm have always interested me, but they need to be viewed in their
complexity that often includes a resistance to change.

You are a well-known literary theorist and an organizer of reading debates with
your students. Can you pick up, in this plethora of contemporary ‘’stories of
reading’’, a theory fitted to our challenging era?

– As I have suggested above, as a “deconstructionist” I was always interested in the
tensions that texts develop from inside, tensions that are often left unresolved.

Do you intend to write fiction? Who are your preferred fiction writers?

– I have “written fiction” in my translations, which have covered important writers and
their complex works (Salinger, Pynchon, Thomas Wolfe, Vonnegut, Ken Kesey, Dylan

What is your opinion, are the new cultural theories able to play a major role in
innovative literary, like in the past? I remember that during the 70’ties and 80’ties
years of the communist regime in Romania, I read a lot of interesting books of
criticism, translated and published by ‘’Univers’’ and they influenced me as a

– The new theories can inspire new approaches and modalities of writing, but they need to
be used cautiously, as hints and options rather than required approaches.

What could be the role of literature in our time, is it diminished compared to the
Modern era?

– Literature remains an important window through we peep at the world, but this window
has to be continually refreshed and redefined, opening new vistas in the way we make
and receive literature.

Marcel Cornis-Pope is Professor of English and Media Studies at Virginia Commonwealth University, USA. His publications include ‘’Anatomy of the White Whale: A Poetics of the American Symbolic Romance’’ (in Romanian, 1982), ‘’Hermeneutic Desire and Critical Rewriting: Narrative Interpretation in the Wake of Poststructuralism’’ (1992), ‘’The Unfinished Battles: Romanian Postmodernism before and after 1989’’ (1996), and ‘’Narrative Innovation and Cultural Rewriting in the Cold War Era and After’’ (2001). He has also published numerous articles on contemporary fiction, narrative studies, and critical theory in journals and collective volumes. In 2010 he completed with John Neubauer the editing of a four-volume “History of the Literary Cultures of East Central Europe: Junctures and Disjunctures in the 19th and 20th Century,” which explores East Central European literatures from a comparative-intercultural perspective. His most recent book-length publication is an international collection entitled “New Literary Hybrids in the Age of Multimedia Expression: Crossing Borders, Crossing Genres,” published at the end of 2014 by John Benjamins Publishing Company.

1979 Ph.D. magna cum laude, American and Comparative Literature University of
Timişoara, Romania
1971 Graduate Summer School, University of Birmingham, England
1968 M.A. in English and American Literature, Babeş-Bolyai University of Cluj,
1966 English Summer School, Oxford University, England
Ph.D. Dissertation: “Theory and Form of the Symbolic Romance: Herman
Melville and Thomas Wolfe”
M.A. Thesis: “Robert Frost: Poet of Clarification”
2012- Professor of English and Media Studies, Virginia Commonwealth University,
2010-2011 Professor of English and Media Studies, Co-Chair, Department of English
Virginia Commonwealth University
2006-2010 Professor of English; Director of PhD Program in Media, Art, and Text
2000-2006 Professor of English and Chair, Department of English, Virginia
Commonwealth University
1991- Professor of English, Department of English, Virginia Commonwealth University
1988-1991 Associate Professor, Dept. of English, Virginia Commonwealth University
1987-88 Andrew W. Mellon Faculty Fellow, Comparative Literature, Harvard University
1985-87 Adjunct Associate Professor, Department of English, University of Northern
1983-85 Senior Fulbright Lecturer, Department of English, University of Northern Iowa
1977-83 Associate Professor, Department of English, University of Timişoara, Romania
1968-77 Assistant Professor, Department of English, University of Timişoara, Romania
Elske V.P. Smith Lecturer Award, College of Humanities, VCU, 2015.
Cornis-Pope Lectures in Media, Art, and Text. Annual program in honor of my research
and teaching, launched in 2012.
Elected member of the Academia Europaea, 2012.
VCU Award of Excellence, 2007 Convocation, Sept. 25, 2007.
Speaker at the Phi Kappa Phi initiation ceremony, the Greater Richmond Convention
Center, November 2007.
Fellow-in-Residence, the Netherlands Institute of Advanced Studies in Humanities and
Social Sciences, Wassenaar, Sept. 1, 1999-June 30, 2000.
The 1996 Phoenix Award for Significant Editorial Achievement (presented by the
Council of Editors of Learned Journals).
Member, the Honor Society of Phi Kappa Phi (inducted April 25, 1996).
Nominee, SCHEV Outstanding Faculty Award (1995).
Nominee, VCU Distinguished Scholarship Award (1995; 1996).
Humanities & Sciences Distinguished Lecturer Award, VCU (1994).
Humanities & Sciences Distinguished Scholar Award, VCU (1991).
Andrew Mellon Faculty Fellowship, Harvard University (1987-88).
Fulbright Teaching and Research Award (1983-85).
The Romanian Writers’ Award for Criticism (1982).
The Romanian Writers’ Award for Translation (1975).
A.C.L.S. grant for research in the U.S. (1972)
British Council Fellowship, University of Birmingham (1971).
British Council Fellowship, Oxford University (1966).
Listings: Contemporary Authors Online; Who’s Who in the South and Southwest; Who’s Who in
American Education; Who’s Who in the World; Who’s Who in America (2009, 2010,
2011, 2012, 2014, 2015), Who’s Who: Romanian Writers Abroad, etc.
2016-2017 Forthcoming Chinese translation of Narrative Innovation and Cultural
Rewriting in the Cold War Era and After (London: Palgrave Press, 2001).
Simplified Characters Chinese Characters translation. Beijing: Beijing Yanziyue
Culture & Art Studio.
2014 New Literary Hybrids in the Age of Multimedia Expression: Crossing Borders,
Crossing Genres. Ed. Marcel Cornis-Pope. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John
Benjamins Publishing Company. 456 pp. Published as part of the Comparative
History of Literatures in European Languages (CHLEL) sponsored by the
International Comparative Literature Association—see
REVIEWED by Assumpta Camps, in Recherche Littéraires/ Literary Research 32 (Summer
2016): 108-112. Other references to New Literary Hybrids in the Age of Multimedia Expression
in Recherche Littéraires, pp. 2, 5, 179, 180, 183, and 209.
2010 History of the Literary Cultures of East Central Europe: Junctures and
Disjunctures in the 19thand 20thCenturies. Ed. Marcel Cornis-Pope and John
Neubauer. Vol. 4. “Types and Stereotypes.” Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John
Benjamins Publishing Company. 714 pp. Published as part of the Comparative
History of Literatures in European Languages (CHLEL) sponsored by the
International Comparative Literature Association—see
REVIEWED by Florentina Răcătăianu, Virgil Stanciu, Aurel Sasu, and Liliana Pop (vols. 1-4), in
Tribuna (Romania), 203 (February 16-23, 2011): 15-19; Vol. 4 by Fausto Bedoya in Rampike
(Windsor, Canada) 20.2 (2011): 79.
2007 History of the Literary Cultures of East Central Europe: Junctures and
Disjunctures in the 19thand 20thCenturies. Ed. Marcel Cornis-Pope and John
Neubauer. Vol. 3. “Shifting Literary Topographies.” Amsterdam/Philadelphia:
John Benjamins Publishing Company. 524 pp.
REVIEWED by: Miloš Zelenka (vols. 1-3) in World Literature Studies 1.1
(2009): 77-80; Libuša Vajdová: (vol. 1-3) in World Literature Studies 1.2 (2009): 89-91; Florin
Berindeanu (vols. 1-3) in Yearbook of Comparative and General Literature 53 (2007) 227-32;
Monika Báar in Comparative Critical Studies 4.3 (2007): 468-71; Ileana Orlich in Recherche
littéraire/ Literary Research 24.47-48 (Summer 2008): 51-58. Vols 1-3 reviewed by Marek Paryz
in Akzent (Lublin, 2008): 146-48; Vol. 3 reviewed by Fausto Bedoya in Rampike (Windsor,
Canada) 16.2 (2008): 78-79.
2006 History of the Literary Cultures of East Central Europe: Junctures and
Disjunctures in the 19thand 20thCenturies. Ed. Marcel Cornis-Pope and John
Vol. 2. “The Making and remaking of Literary Institutions.”
Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. 514 pp.
REVIEWED by: Andrei Corbea in Arcadia 44.1 (January 2009): 198-200; Monika Báar in
Comparative Critical Studies 4.3 (2007): 468-71; Letitia Guran, The Comparatist 30 (2006): 129-
35; vol. 1 and 2 reviewed by Nikola Petković in “Nezaobilazni knjiżevnopovijesni document
Srednje Europe” in Novi List (Dec. 24, 2006).
2004 History of the Literary Cultures of East Central Europe: Junctures and
Disjunctures in the 19thand 20thCenturies. Ed. Marcel Cornis-Pope and John
Vol. 1. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing
Company. 648 pp.
REVIEWED by: Vladimir Biti, “Prema novol književno-kulturnoj historiografiji,” Knjižna
republika (Zagreb) 5-7 (2008): 317-23; Michael Heim in Comparative Literature 58.3 (Summer
2006): 261-63; Jóseph Szili in “Westward Hoe or Half-Way between Eastern and Western
Europe,” in Neohelicon 33.2 (December 2006): 247-61; Letitia Guran, The Comparatist 30
(2006): 129-35; Andrew Wachtel in The Slavonic and East European Review 83.3 (1 July 2005):
522-23; Andrei Corbea in Arcadia 40.2 (January 2005): 479-81; Dirk Uffelmann in Kakanien 1
(25 August 2005): 6 pp. http://www.kakanien.ac.at/rez/DUffelmann3.pdf; Anca Băicoianu,
“‘Europa natală’ şi literaturile ei” (“Native Europe” and Its Literatures) Cuvântul 10.12 (Dec.
2004): 11; Diana Kuprel, Idea&s 1.1 (Autumn 2004): 63; Magda Teodorescu, România literară
37. 32 (18 August 2004): 21.
2001 Narrative Innovation and Cultural Rewriting in the Cold War Era and After (New
York and London: Palgrave Press). 336 pp.
REVIEWED by Florentina Anghel in Colocvium 1-2 (2008): 193-94;
Kevin Finucane in The Journal of Experimental Fiction, 2007; Stacey Olster, MFS Modern
Fiction Studies 50.3 (2004) 769-71; David Seed, The Yearbook of English Studies 34.1 (January
2004): 346-47; Alex Feerst, American Literature 75.2 (June 2003): 447-49; Jerome Klinkowitz in
American Literary Scholarship: An Annual 2001 367-68; Jerome Klinkowitz in South Atlantic
Review 68.1 (Winter 2003): 112-15; Brian McHale in The Comparatist 27 (May 2003): 172-74;
Book Review Digest June 2003; Maria Ioniţă in Recherche Littéraire /Literary Research 19.37-38
(2002): 371-73; Adam Katz in Book Review Digest (June 2003); Adam Katz in American Book
Review (January/February 2003): 29-30; Marc Singer in Symploke 10.1-2 (2000): 225-27; Cristina
Chevereşan in “Rescrierea şi inovaţie: Alternativă post-modernă,” Orizont 7 (2002): 6.
2001 Tentaţia hermeneutică şi rescrierea critică: Interpretarea narativă în zodia
poststructuralismului. Trans. Corina Tiron. (Bucharest: Editura Fundaţiei), 414
pp. Romanian translation of Hermeneutic Desire and Critical Rewriting (1982).
REVIEWED by: Monica Spiridon in Observatorul cultural 77 (August 14-20, 2001): 32;
Luminiţa Andriciuc in Obiectiv 1.31 (19 September 2001): 8B; 1.37 (26 September 2001): 11A;
Codrin Liviu Cuţitaru in Observatorul cultural 85 (October 9-15, 2001): 14; Ion Buzera in
Observatorul cultural 85 (October 9-15, 2001): 16 http://www.observatorcultural.ro/Manualul-de-
poststructuralism*articleID_1159-articles_details.html; Dana Chetrinescu in Orizont, 14.3 (2002):
29; Liana Haitaş, “Rescrierea ca generare a nelimitării” (Rewriting as a Generator of
Limitlessness”), Piaţa literară 2.8 (15-30 April 2002): 9. Ion Buzera in Proximităţi critice
(Craiova: Scrisul Românesc, 2004), 58-62.
1996 The Unfinished Battles: Romanian Postmodernism Before and After1989
(Iaşi: the Polirom Press & the Soros Foundation, Ex Libris Mundi series), 192 pp.
REVIEWED by: M. Tejerizo in Europe-Asia Studies 50. 7(November 1998): 1302-1304; Christian
Moraru in The American Book Review 19.3 (March-April 1998): 12, 14; Adam Sorkin in
Romanian Civilization: A Journal of Romanian and East Central European Studies 6.2 (Fall
1997): 107-10; Voichiţa Năchescu in Orizont 9.8 (27 August 1997): 4; Jeanine Teodorescu-Regier
in World Literature Today, 71.3 (Summer 1997): 578; Monica Spiridon in România literară 30.4
(29 January 1997): 21.
1995 Violence and Mediation in Contemporary Culture, vol. coedited with Ronald
Bogue (SUNY Press), 207 pp.
REVIEWED by Peter M. Magolda, NASPA Journal 34.2 (Winter 1997): 164-
1992 Hermeneutic Desire and Critical Rewriting: Narrative Interpretation in the Wake
of Poststructuralism (New York: St. Martin’s, 1992; London: Macmillan Press,
Inc., 1991), 370 pp.
REVIEWED by: H. Ruthrof in Semiotica 100.1 (1994): 69-93;
Mihai Spariosu in The Canadian Review of Comparative Literature 22.2 (June 1995) 361-62;
Ileana Orlich in International Fiction 21.1-2 (1994): 111-14; Pia Brânzeu in Orizont 3 (1994);
Lawrence M. Porter in YCGL 41 (1993): 218-19; W. Baker in Style 26.4 (Winter 1992): 657;
Cristian Moraru in Contrapunct 3 (November 1992): 1, 5.
1982 Anatomia balenei albe (Anatomy of the White Whale: A Poetics of the American
Symbolic Romance). Bucharest: Univers, 430 pp.
Sections of this book have appeared in English as follows: “Moby-Dick,”
Reader’s Encyclopedia of American Literature (New York: Harper & Row, 1991); “Inside a Stratified
Whale: Melville’s Textual Semiotics and the Postmodern Novel.” Ed. John Deely, Semiotics 1985 (Lanham,
New York: University Press of America, 1986), pp. 289-301; “A Classification of the Interpreter (Reflector)
in Modern Fiction.” Eds. Marcel Cornis-Pop et alia, Caiete de semiotică, I (University of Timişoara Press,
1981): 131-54; “Contemporary Metafiction: A Pragmatic Approach.” Eds. Paul Miclau and Solomon
Marcus, eds., Sémiotique Roumaine (Bucharest: Université de Bucharest, 1981), pp. 209-22.
REVIEWED by: Virgil Nemoianu, American Studies International, 1984; Mircea Mihăieş,
Orizont 34. 31 (5 August 1983): 8; Irina Mavrodin, România literară 15.20 (13 May 1982): 7;
Zorin Diaconescu, Tribuna 14 (1982); Paul Dugneanu, Luceafărul 11 (1982); Cornel Ungureanu,
Orizont 11 (1982); Ştefan Avădanei, Cronica 10 (1982); Mihai Dinu Gheorghiu, Convorbiri
literare 88 (3 March 1982): 6.

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George Löwendal la Berlin

În perioada 5 – 22 septembrie 2017, ICR Berlin a fost gazda unei expoziții-eveniment, realizată de Fundația Löwendal în colaborare cu Institutul Cultural Român din Berlin, curatori fiind Ruxandra Demetrescu și Cristina Cojocaru. Vernisajul expoziției a avut loc marți, 5 septembrie 2017, ora 19.00.

Prezentarea de pe saitul ICR Berlin:

‘’O expoziție dedicată operei lui George Löwendal cu ocazia împlinirii a 120 de ani de la nașterea artistului constituie un moment de reevaluare a unei creativități ce poate fi descifrată sub semnul unei paradoxale și fericite excepții. Născut la Sankt-Petersburg într-o familie nobilă, cu vechi rădăcini princiare daneze, ajunge în România după primul râzboi mondial printr-un accident al sorții: va poposi mai întâi la București (1921-1925) și se va stabili apoi, pentru mai bine de un deceniu, la Cernăuți, unde va lucra ca pictor scenograf și director tehnic al nou înființatului Teatru Național. Cosmopolitul oraș bucovinean, spațiu legendar central-european consacrat de poeți precum Paul Celan, a fost fără îndoială benefic pentru creativitatea lui Löwendal, care a intrat în avangarda mișcării teatrale și artistice, fapt documentat mai ales de schițele scenografice sau de costum, dar și în studiile expresioniste ale portretelor sale. Modernitatea înnoitoare, cultivată de Löwendal în lumea prin excelență citadină a Cernăuților din anii interbelici, se va îmbina neașteptat cu o vână tradițională, regăsită odată cu descoperirea unui teritoriu genuin: Bucovina, cu peisajele, mănăstirile și, mai ales, cu țăranii săi. Așa cum avea să afirme într-un interviu publicat în Facla, în iulie 1935, „un Gauguin a trebuit să părăsească Parisul pentru Tahiti, ca să găsească noutăți demne de a rămâne mărturie veacurilor; pe mine o soartă mai fericită m-a aruncat într-o Americă nedescoperită încă de pictorii români: Bucovina. (…) Aici au mai rămas așezări de răzeși în care portul de pe vremea lui Ștefan cel Mare se poate găsi nealterat”.
Prezenta expoziție, organizată în spațiile Institutului Cultural Român din Berlin, dorește să evidențieze forța creatoare cu care Löwendal a abordat în opera sa o multitudine de genuri și stiluri, de la proiecte scenografice avangardiste, la portrete cu vână expresionistă, de la peisajele influențate de lecția impresionismului și post-impresionismului la pictura religioasă neobizantină.
Iată de ce selecția propusă (în jur de 60 de lucrări aparținând Fundației Löwendal), va ilustra diversitatea activității sale artistice, prezentând: pictura, ce a fructificat în portretele țăranilor și peisajele cu mânăstirile din Bucovina o tradiție exemplară documentată în tablourile sale de pictorul-baron, ajuns „din voia soartei“ pe meleagurile noastre. Căci, așa cum scria în 1935 Alexandru Tzigara-Samurcaș, „pentru a fi făcut această minune, George Löwendal a preamărit țara unde și-a oprit pribegia și noi îi rămânem adânc recunoscători“; grafica de șevalet, ilustrată îndeosebi de portretele de o diversitate tipologică remarcabilă (actori, scriitori, dar și țărani, târgoveți, etc.); schițe scenografice și de costum realizate în perioada Cernăuți; afișe ce ilustrează interesul artistului pentru grafica publicitară.
Alături de lucrările de pictură și grafică, expoziția va cuprinde și un semnificativ aparat documentar – texte și fotografii ilustrând biografia artistică a lui Löwendal.
Kunst des Theaters, Theater der Kunst (Arta ca teatru, teatrul ca artă) / GEORGE LÖWENDAL (1897-1964) – Malerei, Graphik, Bühnenbilder (pictură, grafică și proiecte scenografice) / 5 – 22 septembrie 2017
ICR Berlin: Reinhardtstr. 14, 10117 Berlin. Program galerie: luni-vineri, 14.00 – 18.00.’’

Expoziţia intitulată ’’Arta ca teatru, teatrul ca artă’’ a fost un succes, reliefat şi de articolul publicat de către cunoscutul critic de artă Ingeborg Ruthe în celebrul ziar ,,Berliner Zeitung”:

Expresiv până în vârful barbiei. Tablourile lui George Löwendal la Centrul Cultural Român.

Diabolicul vizitiu agită biciul, rânjind, îți pare că-l auzi pocnind, în vreme ce căluțul
temător-supus merge la trap, nările umflate și gura căscată exprimând efortul panicat.
O scenă teatrală – într-adevăr, desenul în culori a fost elaborat în perioada 1918/1921
drept crochiu pentru un decor de teatru de către pictorul, desenatorul și artistul
dramatic George Löwendal, născut în anul 1897 ca fiu al unei familii nobile din
Danemarca, la St. Petersburg, mort în 1964 la București.Atunci, pe la 1920, tânărul Löwendal, ajuns artist în Bucovina, trecea mai degrabă drept ,,rusul pripășit pe aici”. Astăzi se numără printre cei mai
complecși artiști ai României din modernitatea ante- și postbelică.

În schimb în Germania opera sa reprezintă o descoperire. 60 de picturi, desene,
grafică pot fi văzute la galeria Centrului Cultural Român. Și elementul deosebit:
Löwendal a fost un excelent portretist, un expresionist înzestrat, cu simțul observației,
la fel ca celebrii artiști germani, de pildă George Grosz, Otto Dix, precum pictorul de
scene psihedelice Ludwig Meidner.

Ce cap – cu ce bărbie! Graficianul l-a caracterizat pe muzicianul din Cernăuți în anul
1931 drept scripcar al diavolului. A pictat țăranii aspri din regiune, femeile – și
miturile. Cu toții s-au lăsat seduși de Löwendal, a fost venerat și admirat. Iar de faptul
că el și opera sa, tablourile sale expresioniste în permanență și ușor suprarealiste din
vremurile avangardelor europene, precum și decorurile sale de teatru și figurinele nu
au intrat în uitare, se ocupă Fundația Löwendal. Ea a făcut posibilă și această
descoperire pentru publicul berlinez.”

Preşedinte al Fundaţiei Löwendal din Bucureşti este doamna Ariadna Avram, nepoata marelui artist, cea care a înfiinţat şi muzeul de artă cu acelaşi nume ilustru, iar mâna sa dreaptă este curatorul George Radu.

În urmă cu 15 ani am dedicat şi eu o cronică de artă Pictorului Bucovinei, George Löwendal, un clasic al artei româneşti şi europene:


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Featured Artist by Levure littéraire 13

Text and Time 82, oil on canvas, 50×70 cm, 2011

Happy to share with you: Featured Artist in the 13th issue of the prestigious international cultural magazine Levure littéraire (France-USA-Germany), with a study wrote by the art curator and art historian Iulia Mesea, from the Brukenthal National Museum, Sibiu, Romania.


The founder and director of Levure littéraire is the well-known writer Rodica Draghincescu.

Rodica Draghincescu

Bio Rodica Draghincescu:

Writer and translator. She writes both in French and in Romanian.

Born in Buzias, Romania.

Studies at the University of Timisoara – Romanian and French.
She worked as a teacher, after 1990 empolyed at the University of Timisoara, and at the Romanian Academy.

She is living in Stuttgart, Germany.

Publications in literary magazines and anthologies worldwide – poetry, prose, essays, translations, interviews, and critics.

Participation at festivals in Germany, Austria, Schwitzerland, France, Luxemburg, Italy, Sweden, Serbia, Slovenia, Romania, Moldavia, Canada.


Aproape cald, poems. Plumb, Bacau, 1993.

Fiecare avem sub pat niste fotografii de care ne este rusine, poems and pamphlets. Marineasa, Timisoara, 1995.

Distanta dintre un barbat îmbracat si o femeie asa cum E, novel. Marineasa, Timisoara, 1996.

Obiect de lux ascutit pe ambele parti, poems. Cartea Romaneasca, Bucharest, 1997.

Ah!, poems. Vinea, Bucharest, 1998.

Gâteau de terre, poems in French. DU Style, Bucharest, 1999.

Craun, novel. Paralela 45, Pitesti, 1999.

EU-genia, poems, Vinea, Bucharest, 2000.

Tangouri pe trambulina, essays and interviews. Paralela 45, Pitesti, 2001.

La poussière du soir, poems. Éditions Trames, Rodez, 2001.

Passages, poems. Éditions Trames, Rodez, 2001.

Peut-être hier, poems. Éditions Trames, Rodez, 2001.

Distance entre un homme habillé et une femme telle qu’elle est, novel. Translated into French by Florica Ciodaru-Courriol. Éditions Autres Temps, Marseille, 2001.

Phänomenologie des geflügelten Geschlechts, poems. Translated into German by Edith Konradt, Dieter Schlesak, Hellmut Seiler. Edition Solitude, Stuttgart, 2001.

Morgen und Abend, poems. Translated into German by Rüdiger Fischer. Ithaka, Stuttgart, 2003.

La lune n’est pas un simple mouchoir, poems in French. Éditions l’Harmattan, Paris, 2003.

Fauve en liberté, poems in French. Éditions Autres Temps, Marseille/ Éditions Les Écrits des Forges, Québec, 2003.

Entretiens avec Rodica Draghincescu, interviews. Éditions Autres Temps, Marseille, 2004.

awards and fellowships:
1992: Special prize for poetry, Académie de Lettres et de Beaux Arts ‘Le Périgord’, Bordeaux, France.
1995: Special prize of the poetry festival ‘Goccia di Luna’, Pomezia, Italy.
1996: Prize of the Writer’s Union, Constanta, for debut novel (‘Distanta…’).
1998: Romanian prize for avantgardistic poetry ‘Geo Bogza’.
2001: Prize of the Writer’s Union, Bucharest, for the best poetry book of the year (‘EU-Genia’).
2000-2002: Fellow of the Academy Schloss Solitude, Stuttgart, Germany.

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My special guests for Levure littéraire 13

Rodica Draghincescu. Photo by Laurence Barataud

I’m thrilled to announce my beloved readers that the Spring/Summer issue (13) of the prestigious international cultural magazine, Levure littéraire (France-USA-Germany, was launched. It’s the most rich, multilingual and multidisciplinary edition since its creation (2010), with 245 international authors and artists, together!
Personalities and talents, representatives from many countries, revolutionary authors, visionary authors, classical authors, interesting authors and artists, creators of peace and harmony, writing workshops, cultural experiments.
Literature (poetry, prose, interviews, reading notes, reviews, theater, literary performances), Arts (painting, drawing, photography, sculpture, music etc), Sociology, Philosophy, Translatology, cultural Information.
Discover these wonders (famous artists, well-known artists, original authors, promising young people). Look at our multilingual SUMMARY, here you will find all our artists and authors! Click on their names.
Thanking you in advance for your enthusiasm and sharing our publication with your community!


I’m very happy to be one of the editors of such a cutting edge magazine (nominated last year in TOP 5 cultural reviews in France), a true cultural ferment for the global spirituality.

My special guests of the 13th issue of Levure littéraire are:

– the Spanish philosopher and writer Amador Vega, in a dialogue with me:


– the Romanian art curator and art historian Iulia Mesea, from the Brukenthal National Museum, Sibiu:


– the well-known American writer Andrew Singer, director of Trafika Europe:


– the French writer and visual artist Alain Rivière:


– the Romanian visual artist Felix Aftene:


– the Spanish writer Enrique Nogueras:


– the Romanian visual artist Liviu Soptelea:


– the American writer and philosopher Gregory Vincent St. Thomasino:


– the Hungarian visual artist Krisztina Asztalos:


– the Romanian visual artist Adrian Samson:


– the Tibetan writer and visual artist Yakman K Tsering:


– the Ukrainian visual artist Svitlana Levchenko:


In the end I’d like to share with you the vibrant words of Rodica Draghincescu, founder and general director of Levure littéraire:

”Intended as an ethical and aesthetic ferment, Levure is a space for creative initiatives and thoughts, without financial support, without hegemonic pretences, which favours the quality and originality of the constructive Act of Culture. In these times of economic crisis, and particularly of extreme moral crisis, when Peace, Education and Culture are being marginalized, since it is no longer in fashion to cultivate humanism, Levure persists in seeking with you the path to a secret bridge, toward a peaceful place conducive to meditation, beyond the barbarity and vulgarity of everyday life. With the intention of remaining in the tradition of the universal spirit of the Enlightenment!

A journal of information and education, Levure brings to your computer screens, 4 times a year, out-of-the-ordinary authors (100 to 245 per issue), themes and topics that are dealt with, tackled or exploited less often, agents and actors from the entire sociocultural spectrum (literature, visual arts, music, philosophy, ethnology, journalism, psycholinguistics, etc. – which by presenting countries and traditions, horizons rich in differences and similarities, likenesses, enrich us as they fascinate us. Through its thematic diversity, and through an impressive number of cultural players, Levure offers us and you a choice of many languages, sensibilities, tastes, needs for reading and information.”

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